Between the individual components of the computer, data is transmitted through a special means of communication – a bus, which is a complexly organized group of conductors.
Only the processor and RAM are connected directly to the bus. Other devices are connected to it using special matching devices – controllers. Some of them (for example, the keyboard controller and disk controllers) are mounted directly on the motherboard. Others are located on special boards called adapters. For example: video adapter (or video card), network adapter, etc.
Ports are devices through which peripheral devices are connected to the system unit. Hardware ports are implemented in the form of connectors on the back wall of the system unit. The following types of ports are usually distinguished:
Serial port (COM, PS/2) – transmits data characters one bit at a time. A mouse and modem are connected via COM ports. Via PS/2 port – keyboard and mouse.
Parallel Port (LPT) – a byte of data is transmitted simultaneously. Used for printers and scanners. The USB port is a universal port that can be connected to up to 127 external devices that support the USB standard. It can be a printer, scanner, monitor, keyboard, mouse, etc.
In addition to the named ports , there are others:
Game (Game) – to connect the joystick.
Infrared (IrDA) – for wireless connection of devices.
Radio port (Bluetooth) – for wireless connection of devices.
A device driver is a software tool required to connect hardware.